Understanding Adenoid Glands And Their Issues – Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Adenoid Glands

The human body has a unique immune system made up of various specialized components that work together to protect us from infections and illnesses. The adenoids (pharyngeal tonsils) are one such component. These lymphoid structures, located at the back of the nose and above the roof of the mouth, eliminate infection. They also play an essential role in our immune response.

Dr Peter Baptista, one of the leading ENT doctors in Dubai, suggests immediate consultation in case you face any complications with these glands.

In this write-up, we will look at the causes of adenoiditis, adenoid symptoms, adenoid hypertrophy symptoms, and the appropriate treatment.

What are Adenoid Glands?


The adenoids are a tissue patch located in the back of the nasal cavity. Adenoids, like tonsils, help keep your body protected by trapping harmful bacteria and viruses you inhale or swallow.

Adenoids play an essential role in fighting infections in babies and young children. They become less important as a child grows older and the body develops other methods of fighting germs. Adenoids typically shrink after the age of 5, and by the adolescent years, they frequently vanish.

adenoid gland

The problem of Adenoid Hypertrophy (Adenoid Enlargement)

Since adenoids confine germs that enter the body, adenoid tissue may temporarily swell (get puffier) in response to an infection. The swelling sometimes subsides, but adenoids can become infected and enlarged.

Adenoid hypertrophy, or enlargement of the adenoids, is frequently caused by B-cell proliferation when exposed to high levels of antigens. Adenoids’ immune function is most active between the ages of 4 and 10, gradually declining after puberty. The condition is primarily managed with medications, and in case the patient doesn’t respond well to medicines, Adenoid Hypertrophy surgery in Dubai may be required.

Causes of Adenoid Issues or Hypertrophy

Tonsils and adenoids trap germs that enter the body and can swell due to an inflammatory response.

Some of the leading causes of issues with adenoids are as follows:

Infections: Repeated or chronic infections, such as bacterial or viral respiratory tract infections, can cause inflammation and swelling of the adenoids. The common cold, sinus, and ear infections are examples of these infections.

Allergies: Allergic reactions to pollen, dust mites, mold, or pet dander can cause the adenoids to swell and become inflamed.

Age: Adenoids are larger in children than in adults. They typically grow until the age of five, at which point they begin to shrink gradually. Adult adenoid enlargement is less common.

Chronic Sinusitis: Sinus infections that last for a long time can contribute to adenoid enlargement.

GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease): Acid reflux can irritate the throat and cause adenoid inflammation.

Passive Smoking: Passive smoking or second-hand smoke exposure can contribute to adenoid enlargement and inflammation.

Although adenoid hypertrophy is most common in children, adults exposed to pollutants or smoke may be predisposed to adenoid enlargement due to irritation. Adenoid hypertrophy has been linked to sinus tumors and lymphomas in some cases.

Adenoid Enlargement Symptoms

Adenoid hypertrophy can cause several signs and symptoms, most of which affect the airways and surrounding structures. Most people, however, will have minor enlargement and appear asymptomatic. Nasal obstruction, which refers to the partial or complete blockage of the nasal airway, is common in cases of more severe growth. Such an obstruction frequently results in mouth breathing or the unconscious tendency to breathe through the mouth rather than the nose. Bad breath, dry mouth, cracked lips, and nasal congestion can all result from this.

A blockage of the Eustachian tubes, which connect the middle ear and the nasopharynx (upper throat and back of the nasal cavity), can also result from nasal obstruction. A blockage of the Eustachian tubes frequently causes ear infections, such as otitis media (middle ear infection) or a cough. It can also cause sleep disruption, resulting in agitation and increased snoring. In some cases, it can also lead to sleep apnea – a condition in which a person, while asleep, stops breathing temporarily. The persistence of symptoms can eventually result in adenoid facies.

Adenoid Hypertrophy Treatment

Most people with adenoid hypertrophy have no symptoms and may not require treatment. Treatment in symptomatic cases focuses on resolving the underlying cause of the adenoid enlargement.

Here are some of the treatment options for complications of adenoid hypertrophy:

Bacterial infections are typically treated with a specific antibiotic regimen based on the causative agent. Unlike bacterial infections, viral infections are not cured by antibiotics but usually clear up independently after 5 to 7 days.

Intranasal corticosteroids, oral steroids, and oral antihistamines can all be used to treat allergic reactions. Meanwhile, acid reflux treatment primarily focuses on lifestyle and dietary changes and the use of antacids or acid-suppressing medications.

Adenoid Hypertrophy Surgery

Adenoid Hypertrophy surgery (also known as an adenoidectomy) may be required in severe or persistent enlargement cases. It may also be required if an individual has persistent otitis media or fluid buildup in the middle ear (i.e., middle ear effusion). Although adenoidectomy requires general anesthesia, it can be performed as an outpatient procedure with recovery times ranging from 48 to 72 hours.

When can adenoids be removed?

Adenoidectomy, or surgical removal of the adenoid, is typically performed between the ages of 1 and 7 years on the recommendation of an ear, nose, and throat specialist. Surgical removal is not always necessary, and the adenoids will shrink as the child grows older.

Facts about Adenoid Hypertrophy Surgery in Dubai

  • The enlargement of the adenoid tissue in the upper airway between the nose and the back of the throat is referred to as adenoid hypertrophy. Enlargement is most common in children under the age of five, and it is usually caused by bacterial or viral infections.
  • Allergens, irritants, and acid reflux can all cause adenoid hypertrophy in some people. Adenoid hypertrophy is generally asymptomatic, but symptoms and signs include mouth breathing, middle ear infections, bad breath, nasal obstruction, and sleep disruption.
  • In general, treatment focuses on resolving the underlying cause. After a proper evaluation by our best ENT doctor in Dubai, surgical removal of the adenoids may be required if there is a chronic infection or persistent symptoms.

Consult Dr. Peter Baptista for all your Adenoid Gland Issues

If you are looking for an experienced doctor to help you out with any adenoid gland issues and adenoid hypertrophy surgery in Dubai, Dr. Peter Baptista is the right choice for you. With his extensive experience and knowledge in this field, he has the ability to provide you with quality care and treatment plans that can help treat your Adenoid Gland problems effectively.

So don’t hesitate to consult him if you have any Adenoid Gland-related concerns; he will be more than happy to assist.

Dr. Peter Baptista

 Dr Peter Baptista Jardin

European Board Certified ENT Doctor In Dubai

Dr. Peter Baptista Jardin is an ENT specialist with a special interest in treating sleep apnea. He is a revered expert in Spain for performing the first ever robotic transoral surgery in 2011, and the only series of hypoglossal nerve stimulation proved revolutionary for obstructive sleep apnea treatment worldwide. He currently serves as an ENT doctor in Dubai’s Al Zahra Hospital.